Role of International Financial Institutions in Standardizing the Financial Market

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What are International Financial Institutions?

The association or alternative cluster for the global money services industry is called the Institute of International Finance (IIF). In reaction to the early 1980s global debt crisis, it was founded in 1983 by way of 38 banks from major industrialised nations. Since then, it has grown to represent approximately 450 companies from more than 70 countries.

The Institute of International Finance’s mission is to assist the financial industry in managing risks prudently, to promote ethical business conduct, and to support restrictive, economic, and economic rules that could be in the best interests of its contributors and promote global financial balance and sustainable economic growth.[1].

Financial Institutions

A organisation handling money and financial transactions such deposits, loans, investments, and currency exchange is known as a financial institution (FI). Money establishments include a wide range of commercial activities in the financial services industry, including banks, trust companies, insurance companies, brokerage firms, and investment dealers. Nearly everyone who lives in a highly developed economy needs the services of financial institutions on a regular basis or occasionally at the least. Money operations are an essential component of every economy, and people and businesses depend on money operations for transactions and investment, therefore in a sense, money establishments serve the majority. Because banks and other financial institutions play such a significant role in the economy, governments consider it essential to administer and regulate them. Historically, financial institution failures have caused panic[2].

Types of International Financial Institution

International Monetary Fund

For all 190 of its member nations, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) strives to achieve sustainable growth and prosperity. In order to increase productivity, create jobs, and improve the economy, it will thus support economic policies that encourage monetary stability and financial cooperation. The member nations govern and hold the IMF accountable. The IMF’s three primary objectives are to advance global financial cooperation, promote trade and economic growth, and discourage measures that could be detrimental to prosperity. IMF member nations collaborate with alternative organisations and other international organisations to fulfil these tasks[3].

World Economic Forum (WEF)

Along with its head office in Cologny, Switzerland, it also has offices in New York, Beijing, and Tokyo. WEF is a non-governmental organisation with “other international body” status under the Swiss Host-State Act. The Fourth Industrial Revolution Center will offer a platform for interaction, insight, and effect on changes to how we live, work, and relate, the World Economic Forum (WEF) said earlier this month. In addition, the World Economic Forum includes 1,000 enterprises with yearly revenues of at least $5 billion (WEF). These businesses take the lead in their sector or nation.

World Bank

The World Bank Group, a unique international cooperation with 189 member nations, consists of 5 institutions working to find long-term solutions that reduce poverty and increase shared prosperity in developing nations.

The Bank cluster collaborates on issues ranging from climate change, conflict, and food security to education, agriculture, finance, and trade with national governments, the private sector, civil society organisations, regional development banks, think tanks, and alternative international institutions.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Organization is one of three international organisations that, in large part, create and coordinate global policy (the other two are the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank Group). It is playing a crucial part in global economics, international trade, and political and legal issues that arise in global business as a result of economic processes. It has emerged as the most potent institution in the world for lowering trade-related barriers between nations and opening up new markets.

It collaborates with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to build cohesion while formulating global economic strategies. The international organisation has the capacity to maintain international peace and bilateral ties among its members by following up on negotiations, consultations, and mediations that break down trade-related issues.

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

The Asian Development Bank, or ADB, is a significant partnership that has an impact on India and other countries, particularly in the financial sector. Ashok Lavasa, the election commissioner, has been appointed by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as its vice president (V-P) for private sector operations and public-private partnerships.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) was founded in 1966, with its headquarters in Manila (Philippines). 67 of its members are from Asia and the Pacific. This bank included sculpture-like design elements similar to the World Bank. With a 15.677% stake in the ADB, Japan is the largest shareholder, followed by the United States (15.567%), China (6.473%), and India (5.812%).

The ADB seeks to promote social development by eliminating poverty in the Asia Pacific area through broad economic expansion, real estate development, and regional integration. Within the public sector, an 80th investment is frequently used to administer this. ADB makes investments in public administration, health, and infrastructure to help countries manage their natural resources and lessen the effects of climate change.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, commonly known as APEC, is a regional organisation that fosters stronger economic ties and sustainable growth among its member nations or economies. India is not a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, which has 21 members.

A secretariat, senior officers’ meetings, operations teams, and annual ministerial conferences make up APEC. The Annual Ministerial Meeting of the foreign and trade ministers of all the member states serves as the governing body of APEC. The conferences’ offices are rotated annually among their members. Each year, senior officers’ conferences, made up of delegates from every member state, are in charge of carrying out the decisions made by ministerial conferences. Ten operational teams oversee the following areas: Telecommunications, Trade and Investment Information, Fisheries, Tourism, Transportation, Trade Promotion, Investment and Technology, Human Resource Development, Regional Energy Cooperation, and Marine Resource Conservation. Two ad hoc teams oversee the Regional Trade Easing and Policy. The chief director of a UN agency, who serves a one-year term, is in charge of the secretariat.

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The main goals are to create a debate forum for a wide range of economic issues and to encourage quadrilateral collaboration among the market-oriented economies in the area. By promoting the movement of goods, services, capital, and technology among its members, APEC specifically seeks to advance economic and technological cooperation; to create a liberalised trade and investment system; to promote non-public investment; and to foster “open regionalism.”


The name BRICS stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, five of the world’s emerging economies. Jim O’Neil, then-chairman of Goldman Sachs, first used the phrase BRIC in 2001. Yekaterinburg (Russia) hosted the first BRIC summit in 2009. South Africa formally joined the group that founded BRICS in 2010. At their fourteenth summit, held in Peiping this year, members of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) states strongly denounced coercion in all of its forms, as well as the movement of terrorists across borders and terrorist financing networks. In contrast, the Chinese President warned against “growing military partnerships and pursuing one’s own security at the cost of different countries’ security,” and the Indian Prime Minister did the same.

Role of International Financial Institutions

International financial institutions (IFIs) are important players in the social and economic development plans of nations with developing or changing economies in a number of parts of the world. This position includes providing development-related advice, money, and assistance with implementation. Each of those organisation’s functions separately and is distinguished by AAA credit ratings and a large membership of borrowing and donor countries. All are sharing the following aims and objectives:

  • to improve people’s living conditions and standards and eliminate global poverty;
  • to promote long-term institutional, social, and economic growth; and
  • to encourage regional integration and cooperation.

IFIs help national governments achieve these goals by providing loans, credits, and grants. Such funding is frequently connected to particular initiatives that aim to promote socially and economically sustainable development. IFIs analyse development issues in-depth and provide their borrowers with both technical and consultative assistance. IFIs are increasingly lending to non-sovereign guaranteed (NSG) entities in addition to those public acquisition possibilities, where multilateral money is supplied to a national government for the implementation of a project or programme. These also comprise the corporate sector and subnational governments.

There may also be the possibility that it books income and advantages from each of these chances as a number of potentials acquire the image.

The country’s exchange rates are significant, but it is equally important. This is how one behaves toward an artefact or a piece of fiat money. It plays a significant part in developing an investment in foreign debt securities to have an accurate perception of the market.

It is also possible to evaluate the other country’s financial situation by considering how the two countries interact. Tax, risk, and value arbitrage can be used to fill in gaps and book spectacular profits when engaging in foreign exchange transactions.

In winning circumstances, issues like currency fluctuations, arbitrage, interest rates, deficits, and alternative international political economies are crucial. Global finance makes it easier to calculate the various costs of different state currencies and, as a result, the relative worth of each country in terms of those currencies. It enables examination of the inflation rates and the gathering of information on global debt securities finance.

  • BRICS on Post-COVID Economic Recovery

The BRICS nations supported coordinated policies as a way to recover economically from the COVID-19 pandemic. The BRICS remains committed to developing economic scientific policy coordination, strengthening economic smart cooperation, and promoting an inclusive, robust, and fair post-COVID economic recovery. The summit strongly emphasised the need for ongoing implementation of the BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy 2025 across all relevant ministerial tracks and negotiating teams. In his opening remarks at the summit, the Indian Prime Minister made a strong case for the post-pandemic global economic recovery and the BRICS bloc’s rising power. The BRICS nations collaborate with one another to help the global economy recover because they have similar ideas about how to run it. The PM also emphasised how the New Development Bank’s growing membership and structural improvements have increased the effect of the BRICS organisation.

  • BRICS Framework for Consumer Protection in E-commerce

According to a statement that also supports the creation of the Digital Economy unit by updating the E-commerce unit, the BRICS countries have agreed to accelerate the application of the BRICS Framework for Client Protection in E-commerce to promote consumer protection in e-commerce.

  • BRICS Think Tank Network for Finance

The BRICS nations took the initiative to establish the think tank Network for Finance. “We anticipate it to figure severally and gives intellectual assistance, as and once charged, for data interchange, sharing of experiences and practises, and collaboration on finance difficulties among BRICS states,” the Beijing declaration stated.

  • BRICS on Trade Strengthening

Due to the involvement of BRICS national focal points with the BRICS Business Council, as outlined in the BRICS Framework for Cooperation on Trade Services, the BRICS countries want to continue to expand communication and collaboration in the area of trade services. This aims to assist with the adoption of relevant documents, such as the BRICS Framework for Cooperation in Trade Skilled Services and the BRICS Trade Services Cooperation Roadmap. During the summit, it was learned that the New Development Bank (NDB) of the BRICS had moved its permanent headquarters facility to Shanghai and opened a regional office in India.

  • Recent development between ADB & India:

A $206 million loan agreement between ADB and India will be used to improve urban services in 5 cities in Tamil Nadu. On India’s global debt listing platform, Asian Development Bank (ADB) has listed its 10-year masala notes worth Rs. 850 crore. A conceptual Development Plan (CDP) for the Vizag-Chennai Industrial Passageway had been prepared by INX Asian Development Bank (ADB) (VCIC). ADB has pledged to provide member nations with USD 4 million to help them control coronavirus epidemics.

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For healthcare services and medical equipment to combat the COVID-19 epidemic, the hospital chain Medanta may be eligible for a loan from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) of Rs 100 crore. The initiative can help with the purchase of personal protection equipment, everyday hygiene supplies, and patient care equipment including ventilators and beds.

The financial system was incredibly well-prepared to deal with the COVID-19-related turmoil and volatility because to the last decade’s restrictive reform efforts. Due to the widespread use of central clearing and exposure collateralization, capital and liquidity levels have significantly improved, and counterparty credit risk has decreased. The ability of banks to lend money and intervene with credit in the major economy has been supported by their increased resilience. As a result, banks were generally prepared to manage and absorb the economic shock brought on by the global COVID-19 pandemic rather than amplifying it.

The openness and functionality of the financial markets in important jurisdictions contributed to stability and confidence. It is as necessary to note that quick decisions made by central banks, money authorities, and regulatory organisations were essential in creating beneficial markets. Banks have effectively worked with these authorities to maximise the efficiency of these finance initiatives, liquidity assistance measures, and restrictive adjustment measures, all of which have been crucial in minimising the economic effects of the pandemic.

It is found that collective action has led to a subjective split of the financial markets, aggravating the developing conflict between established financial institutions and organisations that once sold financial goods and services at lower costs. In order to live financial markets’ medical treatment, it becomes important to restructure the business models of monetary and economic organisations. The rise of new financial mechanisms, influenced by the coordinated action of tool-financial technologies, and as a result of the limited flexibility of monetary institutions, must accompany the deformation of the traditional structure of the money markets. It has been established that technical advancements have shaped changes in the money market’s infrastructure, subject makeup, products, and consequently the regulator’s function.

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

In order to aid in the recovery of the global economy, the IBRD and the International Monetary Fund were both founded in 1945. It was held by the governments of 151 nations, and those governments also signed its capital. It lends money to borrowers by borrowing money on international capital markets, as well as from the issue of loan repayments and maintained earnings. The bank’s main goal when it was established was to serve as an international finance source for rehabilitation and development. The Marshall Plan gave European reconstruction momentum, allowing the Bank to refocus its efforts on underdeveloped nations.

  • International Development Association

The IDA was established in 1960 as a division of the World Bank group to offer LDCs much more flexible financial support than the IBRD could. Despite the fact that membership in the IDA is open to all IBRD members, the IDA currently has 137 member nations. The subscription fees from its developed members and the IBRD’s profits provide IDA with its funding. Usually, interest-free loans have maturities of forty to fifty years. Reimbursement can be made in the native currency as long as it is convertible and starts after a ten-year grace period. Only the poorest nations in the world—those with yearly per capita gross national products of $480 or less—are eligible for loans. IDA financing is available to more than 40 nations.

  • International Finance Corporation

Established in 1956, the IFC. The IFC has 133 members and is legally and financially independent of the IBRD, despite the fact that the IBRD gives the IFC some body and other services. The primary duties of the IFC are to: I provide risk capital in the form of equity and long-term loans for successful private enterprises in collaboration with private investors and management; (ii) promote the development of local capital markets by concluding standby and underwriting arrangements; and (iii) promote the flow of capital internationally by providing financial and technical assistance to in camera-controlled finance corporations. Loans are normally made for a period of seven to twelve years to private businesses located in the developing member nations. The IFC’s primary distinguishing characteristic is that both its investments and loans are offered to privately owned businesses.

  • The multilateral investment guarantee agency (MIGA)

By offering investors a range of different services, the MIGA was founded in 1988 to promote equity investment and various direct investment flows to developing nations. It provides insurance against non-commercial risks, provides guidance to developing member governments on the design and implementation of programmes, policies, and procedures relating to foreign investments, and sponsors discussions on investment-related issues between the international community and host governments.


The World Bank, formerly known as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, is the most well-known of all the international monetary organisations (IBRD). The International Development Association (IDA) and the International Finance Corporation are two affiliates of the World Bank that are separate legal and financial persons (IFC). The main objectives of all three organisations, IBRD, IDA, and IFC, remain the same: to promote economic and social advancement in underdeveloped or impoverished nations by working to enhance living standards and productivity to the level when development becomes self-sufficient.

The three reticulated roles that the World Bank, IDA, and IFC play in achieving this shared goal are to lend money, provide recommendations, and act as a catalyst to encourage other people to contribute.

[1]  Testbook, “INTERNATIONAL financial Institutions”  Accessed on 3rd October,2022

[2] By Adam hayes, “ Financial institutions” investopedia, on 2nd february,2022

[3] Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. “Are My Deposit Accounts Insured by the FDIC?” Accessed Feb. 2, 2022