Insolvency process for Corporate Persons

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The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (the “IBC”), was brought into effect on May 28, 2016. This article will dwell upon the bankruptcy cycle of the Corporate Person in India under the Code. The legislation tries to unite the laws identifying with insolvency and liquidation for corporates, individuals, partnership firms and other body corporates as might be informed by the Central Government every now and then. In this line, this article will examine the critical arrangements specifically of the Corporate insolvency resolution process measure under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.  


Organizations need effective and rapid techniques for exit as much with respect to fire up. World over, insolvency methodology help business visionaries close down unviable organizations and start up new ones. This guarantees that the human and financial assets of a nation are ceaselessly rechannelised to effectively utilize accordingly expanding the general profitability of the economy.

Nonetheless, as the size of the organisation grows there is additionally a risk that helpless administration, awful business judgment or plain misrepresentation may bring about a business getting unviable. In such cases it is feasible for the efficiency of the undertaking to be re-established easily and without chaperon injury for the partners by giving more able administrative ability a chance to run it. Truth be told ongoing occasions have shown probability of development by business people, some of them Indian, who have become predominant business elements globally by accomplishing turnaround of debilitated firms and renewal of torpid limits.

Before the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code being passed, India lacked in dealing with the aspects of liquidation and financial distress. Moreover, there were different laws, every one of which applied to a different individual or type of creditors. For instance, the Sick Industrial Companies Act, 1985 (“SICA”) managed the restoration of Industrial organizations, while the Companies Act, 1956 gave provisions for liquidation process to the other corporate entities.

The 26th Report of the Law Commission (1964) proposed an upgrade of the individual insolvency laws. Numerous years after the fact, in 2001, the N L Mitra Committee suggested an exhaustive insolvency and bankruptcy code. In this way in 2014, the undertaking before BLRC was “to make a uniform structure that would cover matters of indebtedness and chapter 11 of every single lawful element and people” .

There were additionally laws like the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI) and the Recovery of Debt Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (RDDBFI Act) that gave roads to security requirement and obligation recuperation, separately, by banks and other institutions.

The Bankruptcy Law Reform Committee was a one of the Hallmark in marking the beginning of the new era for Insolvency laws in India. This committee was headed by Mr. T.K Viswanathan. After the report of the Committee, it was against passed on to the Joint Parliamentary Committee. After certain reforms and amendments, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy code was passed which regulates the liquidation process of the corporate entities.

This code is an impression of very fundamental thinking, it empowers lenders to rebuild terrible performing companies by a cycle of Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process(CIRP) where it incorporates different strides to raise new assets or search for another purchaser to sell the organization that is remembered as resolution plan which whenever acknowledged may resuscitate the organization and whenever dismissed by the Committee of Creditors (COC), the organization will go into liquidation subject to the request for the court.


Prior to the enforcement of the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code, the law identifying with the indebtedness of organizations in India was divided and inclined to gigantic postponements because of covering enactments and incapable and lacking framework managing the system. The system contained in the organizations law gave uniquely to liquidation, though the infamous regime of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act of 1985, appropriate to organizations with industrial business and without a conclusive timeline for the process, given a cover to the debtors against creditors for extensive stretches of time. With these sicknesses, the normal time taken for bankruptcy goal in India has been long.

Starting in 1981, the Indian government set up different committees to investigate the troubles looked by creditors in recuperating their cash and settling monetarily bothered indebted debtors, all of which underscored the difficulties of the past system and a critical requirement for an answer for manage the developing heap of nonperforming loans of Indian banks. These prompted the institution of new laws for recuperation and security requirement, however indebtedness laws had to a great extent been immaculate.

With the most recent formation of Bankruptcy Law Reforms Committee set up in 2014, which introduced a report to the public authority, alongside a draft of the bill proposing a far-reaching indebtedness law. This bill was quickly passed by the parliament in May 2016 as the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code, and the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code was carried into impact alongside the applicable guidelines in December 2016.

The code was outlined with the goal to assist and improve on the interaction of Insolvency and Bankruptcy procedures in India, guaranteeing reasonable exchanges among Debtor and Creditor by eliminating the deviation of debt and default data. The NCLT while mediating on the issues identified with the Code has consistently seen that the object of the demonstration is to discover conceivable solution to manage the stressed assets situation of the organizations arose out of non-performing assets with best of aim restoration and liquidation perforce would be the last way out which the court would avoid in most circumstances.

On the off chance that no resolution plan is introduced before the NCLT inside this time of 180 or 270 days, the corporate debtor is sent into liquidation. During Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP), the guidelines outlined by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) contain point by point courses of events for each significant move to be made by the goal expert and Committee of Creditors (COC). It is pertinent to take note of that any suit that prevents the CIRP from continuing will be rejected from this period.

Initiation of Corporate Insolvency resolution process

The code authorises the following people to initiate the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process.

  1. Financial Creditor (by itself or jointly with other creditors), on occurrence of default, can file the application.
  2. Operational Creditor, after giving 10 days’ notice to the Corporate Debtor, on default or no response to such notice, can file the application.
  3. The Corporate Debtor himself may also initiate the Corporate Insolvency Process.

Sec.11 of the code, restricts certain people who are not entitled to make an application to initiate Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process:

  1. A corporate debtor undergoing the corporate insolvency resolution process
  2. A corporate debtor having completed corporate insolvency resolution process twelve months preceding the date of application.
  3. A corporate debtor or financial creditor who has violated any terms of the resolution plan which was approved twelve months before the date of making application.
  4. A corporate debtor in respect of whom a liquidation order has been made. Here, Corporate debtor includes a corporate applicant in respect of such corporate debtor.

At the point when an application is recorded in the NCLT it should consider it to be an entirety. The AA which is the NCLT will see whether the application is finished in the parts of recording of structures and other different archives that are vital under the areas. It will likewise check the proof of default and the records and fundamental reports authenticating it. The authority additionally needs to check with the IBC Board of India that the proposed between time goal proficient doesn’t have any disciplinary procedures forthcoming against him. After the initiation of the CIRP Process, the creditor’s interest is preserved without affecting the operation of the Corporate Debtor’s business as a going concern. There is a temporary prohibition on all recovery actions against the Corporate Debtor during this period, which allows the RP to undertake its duties under the Code without any intervention.

Pursuant to the commencement of the CIRP process, the interim resolution professional is appointment, the interim resolution professional makes a public announcement inviting claims against the corporate debtor and takes control of the assets, including any bank accounts. The interim resolution professional plays a central role in the CIRP as a facilitator of the resolution process whose administrative functions are overseen by the committee of creditors (COC) and the NCLT. From the date of the interim resolution professional’s appointment, all powers of the board of directors of the corporate debtor are suspended, then vested in and exercised by the interim resolution professional.

Upon review of claims received, the interim resolution professional constitutes the committee of creditors (COC), which is comprised of only the corporate creditors totally unrelated to the corporate debtor. In their first meeting, the COC decides whether to confirm the interim resolution professional, as the resolution professional or another insolvency professional should be appointed as the resolution professional of the corporate debtor. The resolution professional runs the entire CIRP and is required to run the corporate debtor as a going concern while preserving its assets.

In the case of K. Sashidhar v. Indian Overseas Bank & Ors., adjudicating on a decision of some of the creditors of a corporate debtor to reject a resolution plan, the Supreme Court held that NCLT and NCLAT do not have the power to interfere in the commercial decisions of the creditors. The approved resolution plan by the Adjudicating Authority   shall be binding on the corporate debtor and its employees, members, creditors, guarantors and other stakeholders involved in the resolution plan.

Liquidation process

Till the advent of Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code, 2016, (IBC), winding up of companies was completely under the purview of the erstwhile Companies Act, 1956 and later Companies Act, 2013. However, with the enactment of IBC, 2016, a company can be wound up either under the Companies Act, 2013 or under IBC, 2016 depending on the facts and circumstances of each case. Sections 230-231 and 270-365 of the Companies Act, 2013 and Sections 33 to 54 and Section 59 of IBC, 2016 deal with the issue of winding up of the companies.

Till the introduction of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, winding up of organizations was totally under the domain of the recent Companies Act, 1956 and later the Act of 2013. In any case, with the authorization of IBC, 2016, an organization can be wrapped up either under the Companies Act or Code relying upon current realities and conditions of each case. sections 230-231 and 270-365 of the Companies Act, 2013 and Sections 33 to 54 and Section 59 of IBC, 2016 arrangement deal with the issue of winding up of the organizations.

Under the Code, the Liquidation might be triggered under Section 33 of the Code when Adjudicating Authority (“AA”) doesn’t get the Resolution Plan under Section 30(6) of the Code or the time frame recommended for corporate indebtedness goal measure terminates or on the off chance that where Adjudicating Authority dismisses the plan under Section 31 of the Code.

The liquidator may sell –

  • an asset on a standalone basis;
    • the assets in a slump sale;
    • a set of assets collectively;
    • the assets in parcels;
    • the corporate debtor as a going concern; or
    • the business(s) of the corporate debtor as a going concern:

Further, the Committee of Creditors may likewise, with in any event 66 % votes, have the liberty to sell the Corporate Debtor (CD) under Section 33(2), any time before the plan is endorsed and the Resolution Professional files the plan before Adjudicating Authority. Likewise, if the CD repudiates any terms of an affirmed plan by the Adjudicating Authority, any individual whose interest is preferentially influenced by such contradiction may apply for liquidation of CD.

The role of CoC ceases to exist once the liquidation commences. The threat of loss in realizable value due to delays and movement into liquidation acts as a hanging sword and pushes all concerned towards a resolution plan.

Liquidation is driven by the appointed insolvency Professional alluded to for this case as the liquidator. liquidator holds the resources of the organization in trust. The privileges of got banks are regarded, they have the decision of removing their guarantee and pick from the liquidation process1. The recuperations that are acquired are paid out to the different creditors through an all-around waterfall mechanism under section 53 of the Code. Organization may likewise go through a voluntary liquidation under the Code. The law accommodates an instrument to permit a corporate individual to twist up intentionally. This isn’t workable for a person, as voluntary liquidation isn’t really an appreciated process in India more specifically under the Code as the revival stands as a prime goal.

When a firm default, the question arises about what is to be done. Many possibilities can be envisioned. One possibility is to take the firm into liquidation. Another way is to negotiate a debt restructuring, where the creditors accept a reduction of debt and hope that the negotiated value exceeds the liquidation value which is what is discussed previously in the CIRP Process under the Code. Yet another way is to sell the firm as a going concern and use the proceeds to pay creditors. Selling the business as a going concern is in its developmental stages when we consider the jurisprudence of the Insolvency Code in India.


Banking Law Reform Committee was of the view that cross-border issues might be taken up in the following phase of thoughts as domestic code in bankruptcy system required the focus. In fact, this was jested as a contemptible effort. The Joint Committee of Parliament was of the view that not consolidating cross board indebtedness arrangements in the Code may prompt a deficient Code. Accordingly, Sections 233 and Section 234 were remembered for the Code which accommodated an empowering component for “agreements with foreign countries” and ‘letter of request to a country outside India in certain cases”. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency, received in 1997, is intended to help States to outfit their indebtedness laws with a cutting edge, fit and reasonable structure to address occurrences of cross-line bankruptcy more effectively.

IBC and its requirement so far have given a desire to having an instrument in India which persistently screens the exhibition of laws and the establishments and measures the impact of the Insolvency process. Open access information base on all orders/decisions of the NCLT, NCLAT and Supreme Court would encourage promotion of research in the field. Standing Committee on Finance has perceived the requirement for eliminating bottlenecks and smooth out the CIRP further, and henceforth it is a ‘work in progress’. Economies explicit examination has shown that bankruptcy changes that empower obligation rebuilding and rearrangement diminish both failure rates among little and medium-size companies and the liquidation of productive businesses.


Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code, 2016 –

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